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Saturday, April 27, 2024


Architects of the United Republic of Tanzania, Julius Kambarage Nyerere (left) and Abeid Amani Karume (right) exchange documents, solidifying the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.

60 years of the United Republic of Tanzania, We are united and Strengthened for the Development of Our Nation.

1. Introduction.

The United Republic of Tanzania was established through the unification of Tanganyika and Zanzibar on April 26, 1964. It stands as a unified entity with a singular identity across Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar, as well as the surrounding water bodies. Tanzania serves as the representative of its people, projecting a united front to the international community. With our diverse cultural heritage and rich history, Tanzania is a symbol of unity and strength, demonstrating the harmony that can arise from acknowledging and respecting differences.

From the bustling streets of Dar es Salaam to the serene beaches of Zanzibar, we, the people of Tanzania, are bound by a common purpose, to forge a prosperous future for ourselves and our nation. This shared vision is deeply rooted in the history and traditions of our country, where the concept of 'ujamaa', accentuates the importance of communal values and collective progress.

In this great future, you can't forget your past, Bob Marley wisely noted, a thought that strikes a chord as Tanzania commemorates its 60th Union Anniversary, marking six decades since the union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar, forming the United Republic of Tanzania. This milestone is not just a celebration of the present moment but also a reflection on the journey that has brought the country here. It is a tribute to the resilience, perseverance, and unity of the Tanzanian people, who have overcome challenges to build a nation that stands as an inspiration and symbol of progress in Africa and beyond.

As Tanzania looks ahead to the future, it must remember the lessons of its past, honoring its history while forging a path toward continued unity, development, prosperity, and harmony that define Tanzania, ensuring that future generations inherit a nation built on the values of peace, solidarity, and progress.

2. Tanganyika's Road to Independence.

Tanganyika's journey to independence was marked by a challenging struggle against colonial rule. The exploitative practices of European powers, particularly under German and British colonization, sparked fierce resistance among the Tanganyikan people. The colonial rule brought new challenges, as the region grappled with the complexities of governance under foreign administration. Despite facing suppression and oppression, Tanganyika's resolve for self-determination remained unbroken. The eventual declaration of independence in 1961 and the establishment of the Republic of Tanganyika in 1962 underlined the triumph of the people's will and marked the beginning of a new era of sovereignty and self-governance.

2.1. German Exploitation.

Prior to German rule, Tanganyika's history was marked by diverse indigenous cultures and societies, with trade routes connecting the interior to coastal communities. European explorers, driven by the desire for colonial expansion and economic gain, began to penetrate the region in the 19th century. These early interactions were often marred by violence and exploitation, as explorers sought to establish dominance and control over the local populations. The arrival of German colonizers in the late 19th century further intensified these dynamics, leading to widespread displacement and marginalization of indigenous peoples.

During this tumultuous period, the Berlin Conference of 1884 formalized the exploitation of African territories, including Tanganyika, leading to the arbitrary division of Africa among European powers. Tanganyika, under Deutsch Ost-Afrika, was one such territory governed by Germany from 1884 to 1918. However, German rule faced strong opposition, reflecting Tanganyika's resistance to exploitation, oppressive rule, and foreign control as the people sought to preserve their autonomy and cultural identity. Despite these challenges, Tanganyika's diverse communities continued to resist foreign incursions.

2.2. British Colonial Rule.

German rule in East Africa came to an end with Germany's defeat in World War I. The conflict began with clashes between British and German forces along the northern frontier of the German colony, but the decisive assault began in 1916. Led by General Jan Smuts, a British force defeated the Germans near Kilimanjaro and occupied the northern part of German East Africa in March 1916, establishing a provisional administration. Meanwhile, General Paul Emil Von Lettow-Vorbeck and his forces were confined to the southern part of German East Africa. By November 1917, the German army had been driven into Portuguese territory, completing the occupation of Tanganyika. General Von Lettow-Vorbeck, known as the "Lion of Tanganyika" by his native soldiers, formally surrendered on November 13, 1918, marking the loss of German East Africa to the British.

Under the Peace Treaty with Germany signed at Versailles in June 28, 1919, Germany renounced all rights over her overseas possessions, including German East Africa, in favor of the principal Allied and Associated Powers. Article 22 of the League of Nations Covenant, a part of the treaty, mandated these territories to be governed by mandatories on behalf of the League. Britain was designated to administer German East Africa, except for Ruanda and Urundi, which were entrusted to Belgium. The League of Nations mandate placed Tanganyika under British administration and Ruanda-Urundi under Belgian rule, with the Kionga Triangle under Portuguese authority. These territories were to be governed until they were deemed ready for self-governance, though the process lacked clear criteria for achieving self-rule, leading to prolonged colonial governance.

Tanganyika Territory, under British administration, continued to be governed under the terms of the mandate of League of Nations until 1946. At that time, it was placed under the trusteeship system of the United Nations, marking a new phase in its governance and paving the way for eventual self-rule.

2.3. The First Election.

The First Election of Tanganyika in 1958 marked a significant turning point in the country's political history, as it was the first planned national election involving multiple political parties. However, the colonial government, under Governor Edward Twining, imposed difficult conditions aimed at suppressing African participation. These conditions, including income and education requirements, were designed to limit African representation, as the colonial government feared a landslide victory for the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), led by Julius Nyerere. Despite these challenges, TANU emerged victorious in both phases of the election, demonstrating the people's overwhelming desire for independence.

The second phase of the election, held under Governor Richard Turnbull in 1959, further solidified TANU's popularity and support among the people. TANU won all 15 contested seats, indicating its widespread acceptance and influence. The 1960 election reaffirmed TANU's dominance, with the party winning 70 out of 71 contested seats, including one seat won by a TANU member running as an independent candidate. The significant increase in registered voters from the previous election reflected the growing enthusiasm for independence and the relaxation of voting requirements.

2.4. Republic Established.

Following TANU's victories, Tanganyika made significant progress towards self-governance and independence. Mwalimu Julius Nyerere became the Chief Minister on September 2, 1960, and formed the Government the next day. Tanganyika was granted internal autonomy on May 1, 1961, with Nyerere as the Prime Minister. The country gained independence on December 9, 1961, becoming the 104th member of the United Nations. Despite these achievements, TANU was not satisfied with the Queen of England as the Head of State, leading to the declaration of Tanganyika as a Republic within the Commonwealth.

The Republic of Tanganyika was officially established on December 9, 1962, with Mwalimu Julius Nyerere sworn in as the Executive President, Head of State, Government Leader, and Commander-in-Chief. Nyerere's presidency marked a new era for Tanganyika, as the country began a journey of self-determination and sovereignty, guided by the principles of freedom, democracy, and unity.

3. Zanzibar's Road to Independence.

The history of Zanzibar is a tale of strategic maneuvers and shifting colonial powers. Sultan Said bin Sultan Al-Said of Oman's assertive annexation of Zanzibar, Pemba, Mafia, and the East African coastal strip marked a significant turn, relocating his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar. This move transformed Zanzibar into a crucial hub under Omani control. However, the Berlin Conference ushered in a new era, with Britain and Germany negotiating over territorial claims. The outcome, the 1886 Treaty, recognized the Sultan's authority over Zanzibar, Pemba, and the coastal strip, solidifying his position amid the colonial powers' interests. The subsequent delineation of boundaries marked the separation of British and German spheres of influence in East Africa, leaving the Sultanate with a strategically important coastal area.

3.1. British Influence.

The colonial powers' interactions in Africa continued, leading to the 1890 Treaty, which further shaped the region's geopolitics. Britain and Germany reached agreements that saw Germany cede territories to Britain and reaffirm the Sultan's authority over Zanzibar. This agreement also aimed to resolve disputes over territories such as Mafia Island and areas in Tanganyika. For the Sultan, British protection provided a sense of security against perceived German threats, indicating the complex dynamics of colonial politics in East Africa. Zanzibar's strategic importance, both as a trade center and a focal point of anti-slavery efforts, further reiterated its significance in the broader colonial context.

The story of Zanzibar's struggle for true independence is one of complexity and historical significance. In 1963, the Constitution of Zanzibar seemingly granted the Sultan supreme leadership, continuing a legacy that predated colonial rule. This system, however, was a British construct, reinforcing their strategic interests rather than acknowledging Zanzibar's unique identity and its fundamental quest for true independence. The British aimed to protect the Sultan from external threats and quell rising African independence movements, which posed a challenge to the Sultan's rule. By not inviting the Sultan to the Berlin Conference and manipulating succession disputes, Britain reinforced its dominance, denying Zanzibar's true autonomy.

3.2. The Revolution.

While Zanzibar had seemingly achieved independence on December 10, 1963, with the Sultan assuming supreme leadership, a move that was viewed as a step towards autonomy, the true essence of independence was yet to be realized. This legacy, which predates colonial rule, set the stage for the emergence of the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) as a significant player during geopolitical maneuvers. Under the leadership of Abeid Amani Karume, the ASP advocated for a republican Zanzibar, diverging sharply from British and Arab interests. The ASP clandestinely organized the Revolution, seizing key police stations and buildings on January 12, 1964. Despite facing resistance, including from British Police Commissioner Jack Sullivan, the revolutionaries emerged victorious, prompting Sultan Jamshid bin Abdullah to flee. The ASP's success led to the establishment of the Government of the Revolution of Zanzibar, marking a profound shift in the island's history.

The Revolution was more than just a political upheaval; it was a reflection of the resilience and determination of Zanzibar's people. The revolutionaries' courage and meticulous planning, shown in their capture of crucial institutions, made clear their commitment to freedom and self-determination. The Revolution marked a significant moment after years of struggle against colonial and oppressive systems, laying the groundwork for a new era of governance based on the aspirations of the Zanzibari people. It represented a transformative moment that shattered the illusion of artificial freedom and laid the foundation for a more inclusive and democratic Zanzibar.

3.3. Revolutionary Legacy.

The legacy of the Zanzibar Revolution lives on, reminding us of the quest for genuine liberation. It demonstrates the power of unity and the resilience of the human spirit in the face of oppression. The Revolution's impact spread far beyond Zanzibar, inspiring similar movements across Africa. It stands as a symbol of hope, showing us that true freedom is not granted but earned through sacrifice, determination, and a strong dedication to justice and equality.

4. Initiatives and Efforts Toward Unity.

The founders of the Union, Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere and Abeid Amani Karume, played a crucial role in the formation of the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, now known as Tanzania. In light of the political climate at the time, the leaders conducted secret negotiations on both sides of the Union to avoid interference from enemies of the Union.

On April 22, 1964, Nyerere and Karume, representing the people of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, signed the Union Agreement at the State House in Zanzibar, symbolizing their commitment to unity and cooperation. Nyerere's delegation included Oscar Kambona, Job Lusinde, Roland Brown, P.R.N Fifoot, and Bhoke Munanka, while Karume was accompanied by Abdulla Kassim Hanga, Abdulazizi Twala, and Ali Mwinyigogo. This historic agreement marked a significant milestone in the two nations' journey towards unity and integration, laying the groundwork for a brighter future for the people of Tanzania.

4.1. Ratification and Legal Processes.

On April 25, 1964, a historic moment took place as the Union Agreement between Tanganyika and Zanzibar was ratified by their respective Legislative Authorities. In Zanzibar, the Revolutionary Council convened at the State House, while in Tanganyika, the Parliament met at the Karimjee Hall in Dar es Salaam.

President Nyerere sent Oscar Kambona to witness Zanzibar's ratification, and President Karume sent Salim Rashid to witness Tanganyika's ratification. After the Tanganyika Parliament ratified the agreement, Mr. Pius Msekwa submitted the Tanganyika and Zanzibar Union Bill to President Nyerere, who signed it at the Magogoni State House. The signing was witnessed by leaders such as Rashid Kawawa, Pius Msekwa, and others. The next day, April 26, 1964, was officially recognized as Union Day.

4.2. Formation of the United Republic.

On April 27, 1964, the new Parliament of the United Republic began its work, marked by the exchange of Union Agreement documents at the Karimjee Hall. President Nyerere and President Karume exchanged agreements surrounded by cheers and cries of Freedom and Unity. Members from Zanzibar took their oath of allegiance, fulfilling legal requirements, and Abeid Amani Karume was appointed as the First Vice President, with Rashid Mfaume Kawawa as the Second Vice President of the United Republic.

On April 28, 1964, the New Cabinet of the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, consisting of 23 Ministers, was sworn in at the Karimjee Hall, including five members from Zanzibar, marking the official commencement of the government following the Union Agreement signed on April 22, 1964.

4.3. International Recognition.

Two days later, on April 30, 1964, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced to the United Nations Secretary-General, Mr. U Thant, the formation of the "United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar," positioning the country between the United Kingdom and the United States of America in the United Nations Assembly hall. This action led to the renaming of the nation to the United Republic of Tanzania in October 28, 1964, following a parliamentary decision. The symbolic blending of Tanganyika and Zanzibar soils at Uhuru Stadium on April 26, 1965, by Hassan Omary Mzee and Hasanaeli Mrema, and the planting of a mango tree using the same blended soil at the State House in Dar es Salaam, signified the unity between the two territories, commemorated annually as a symbol of the Union's strength.

5. Foundations of Union Governance.

The Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar, defined by the Union Agreement signed on April 22, 1964, by President Julius Kambarage Nyerere of Tanganyika and President Abeid Amani Karume of Zanzibar, is the foundation of the Union's structure. This agreement, an international treaty, required ratification by the Tanganyika Parliament and the Zanzibar Revolutionary Council. Tanganyika enacted the Tanganyika and Zanzibar Union Act, No. 22 of 1964, published in the Tanganyika Government Gazette No. 243 of May 1, 1964, while Zanzibar enacted the Zanzibar and Tanganyika Union Act of 1964. These Acts, along with the Union Agreement, have been integral parts of the Laws of the United Republic of Tanzania since April 26, 1964, demonstrating the meticulous legal process behind this historic merger.

Furthermore, the Union Laws recognized the autonomy of the House of Representatives and the Government of Zanzibar in non-Union matters, showing the dual nature of the Union structure. The Presidents of the United Republic and Zanzibar issued Orders on May 1, 1964, including the Transitional Period Terms Order and the Temporary Constitution Order, establishing the constitutional and legal framework for the transitional period. These Orders, issued in consultation and agreement with the President of Zanzibar, marked the beginning of a carefully managed transition of power and resources from Tanganyika to the United Republic.

The transformation of the Constitution of the Republic of Tanganyika into the Constitution of the United Republic, through the Temporary Constitution Order, was a crucial step in establishing the United Republic of Tanzania. This change required amending certain articles to align with the Union's provisions, leading to the renaming of the nation to the United Republic of Tanzania. The name change was formalized through the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar Change of Name Act of 1964, with the new name officially adopted on October 28, 1964.

5.1. Structure of the Union.

The constitutional framework further delineated the structure of the Union, emphasizing a federation with two distinct governments namely, the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. This structure, enshrined in the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania, recognizes the authority of the Tanzanian government over all Union matters and mainland Tanzania, while granting the Zanzibar government authority over non-Union matters in Zanzibar. This dual-government system was carefully chosen to reflect the unique geographical and population differences between Tanganyika and Zanzibar, ensuring equal representation and a balanced Union.

The Union Agreement establishes a framework where the Parliament and Government of the United Republic wield authority over crucial matters spanning governance, security, and economic affairs. These include the Constitution, Foreign Affairs, Defence, Police, and the handling of emergencies. The agreement also extends to Citizenship, Immigration, Foreign Trade and Borrowing, Public Service, Taxation, and key infrastructure like Ports, Air Transport, postal services, and Telecommunications. Such delineation of responsibilities ensures a cohesive approach to governance and national development.

5.2. Expansion of Union Matters.

The expansion of Union Matters broadened the scope of governance, incorporating additional areas critical to the nation's functioning. This expansion included matters related to currency and money for any legitimate payments (including notes), banks (including savings banks) and all banking activities, foreign exchange and management of matters related to foreign exchange, industrial licenses and statistics, higher education, natural gas resources (including unleaded motor fuel and petroleum and other types of fuel or products), natural gas, the National Examinations Council of Tanzania and all matters related to its operations, air transport and shipping, research, weather forecasting, statistics, the Court of Appeal of the United Republic, and registration of political parties and related matters.

Tanzania's choice of a two-government system over a unitary or three-government structure was a deliberate decision based on the countries' realities and needs. Julius Kambarage Nyerere, one of the architects of the United Republic of Tanzania, emphasized the practical challenges of implementing a unitary government, particularly given Tanganyika's size. His vision aimed to strike a balance that accommodated the differences between Tanganyika and Zanzibar, ensuring a sustainable and functional Union.

6. Strengthening the Union.

The Union Matters are a complex set of issues that span both Union and non-Union sectors, impacting the implementation of governmental matters. To address these, the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar have established a meticulous procedure, involving joint meetings through the Joint Committee. This collaborative approach aims to find solutions and ensure effective governance. Previously, various commissions and committees were appointed to investigate and advise on actions regarding these matters.

6.1. Historical Commissions.

Several significant committees and commissions have been established to address Union issues over the years. These include the Salmin Amour Commission of 1984, the Nyalali Commission of 1990, the Edwin Mtei Commission of 1991, the Shellukindo Committee of 1992, the Kisanga Commission of 1999, and the Joint Committee of the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar in 2005. These bodies reflect a commitment to addressing challenges and finding resolutions through mutual understanding and reconciliation.

The Kisanga Commission of 1999 played a crucial role in gathering public opinions on the Constitution, particularly regarding the government structure. With extensive participation from citizens across Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar, the commission found overwhelming support for the two-government structure, indicating strong public backing for the Union. Similarly, the Shellukindo Committee of 1992 conducted an in-depth investigation into Union obstacles, leading to the presentation of the 'Report of the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania on Removing Union Obstacles' to the Parliament in 1994.

6.2. Progress and Resolutions.

Subsequent actions taken by both governments include legislative amendments, the establishment of the Union Issues Secretariat, and the enactment of various laws. These actions demonstrate a commitment to addressing Union challenges and enhancing cooperation between the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. Since the establishment of the Joint Committee to Address Union Issues in 2006, 25 issues have been raised, and by 2024, 22 of these issues have been discussed, resolved, and removed from the Union issues list.

Among the key issues addressed were the implementation of the Human Rights and Good Governance Commission Act, the Merchant Shipping Act, and Zanzibar's membership in the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Additionally, efforts were made to integrate Zanzibar into the East African Community and enhance its involvement in international and regional affairs. The exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas, as well as the management of telecommunication taxes by the Zanzibar Revenue Board, were also significant topics. Furthermore, agreements were reached on various development projects, such as the construction of roads and hospitals in Pemba, demonstrating a shared commitment to the welfare of both regions.

Other important issues included the appointment of key officials from Zanzibar to national institutions, the regulation of fishing in the Exclusive Economic Zone, and the allocation of revenues from international financial institutions. These efforts reflect a concerted endeavor to address the specific needs and concerns of Zanzibar while ensuring the integrity and stability of the Union.

Moreover, the establishment of the Joint Committee has led to a more structured and inclusive approach to addressing Union matters. The committee's regular meetings at different levels, including Experts, Permanent Secretaries, Ministers, and the Joint Committee itself, chaired by the Vice President of the United Republic of Tanzania, have facilitated open dialogue and swift resolutions. This proactive approach has not only resolved existing issues but has also prevented potential conflicts, contributing to the peaceful coexistence of both governments within the Union.

7. Socio-Economic Progress.

The accomplishments of Tanzania form a compelling story of national progress. The country has not only safeguarded and strengthened unity, solidarity, peace, stability, security, and independence but has also upheld the Glorious Revolution of Zanzibar and the Union of Tanzania. Firmly dedicated to multi-party democracy, human rights, and the secularity of the state, Tanzania has positioned itself as a non-aligned state, consistently defending national interests with staunch principles. The public service flourishes with professionalism, discipline, integrity, diligence, and skills, bolstered by robust policy frameworks that intensify the fight against corruption, economic sabotage, and illicit activities, channeling resources towards national development.

Tanzania's initiatives have resulted in improved food security, surplus production for foreign markets, a growing industrial economy, and strategic projects, all contributing to economic and social prosperity. With a focus on mineral control, increased government revenue, environmental protection, and proactive measures against climate change, Tanzania demonstrates a commitment to sustainable development. The comprehensive approach has led to the creation of modern infrastructure, rapid economic growth, and an improved social welfare system, representing significant steps in the country's advancement.

This progress is visible in both mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar, where substantial economic and social advancements have been achieved. Mainland Tanzania has experienced remarkable growth, with per capita income increasing from TZS 1,968,965 in 2015 to TZS 2,845,000 in 2022, accompanied by an outstanding annual GDP growth of 5.7 percent. Life expectancy also rose commendably from 61 to 65 years between 2015 and 2020. The introduction of free education has boosted student enrollment, while improved access to clean water and healthcare facilities has enhanced living conditions.

In Zanzibar, the average per capita income surged from TZS 1,666,000 in 2015 to an impressive TZS 2,859,000 in 2022, complemented by robust GDP growth of 6.8 percent. Additionally, life expectancy reached 68.4 years in 2020, indicating significant advancements. Zanzibar's provision of free medical care and increase of the local budget for the purchase of essential medicines from 0.5 billion shillings in 2015 to 12.7 billion shillings in 2020 demonstrates its commitment to healthcare access and quality of life improvements for its citizens.

7.1. Founding Tanzania.

The first phase, spanning from 1964 to 1985, was dominated by the visionary leadership of President Julius Kambarage Nyerere, alongside Vice Presidents Abeid Amani Karume and Rashid Mfaume Kawawa. This era was characterized by a unique dual leadership structure, where the First Vice President also held the presidency of Zanzibar, while the Second Vice President served as both Prime Minister and Vice President. Despite facing challenges such as the assassination of Abeid Amani Karume in 1972, which led to Aboud Jumbe Mwinyi being elected to take over the position of the first Vice President of the United Republic of Tanzania and the President of Zanzibar and the Chairman of the Revolutionary Council, serving as the second President of Zanzibar from 1972 to 1984, the government maintained stability and continuity, eventually resulting in President Nyerere's resignation in 1985 and the election of Ali Hassan Mwinyi as the new President.

During this period, Tanzania's regional engagement expanded with its membership in the East African Community in 1967. However, the EAC dissolved in 1977, leading to the integration of former EAC matters into the Union's affairs. These matters included the National Examination Council of Tanzania, Transport and Aviation, Research, Weather Forecasting, and Statistics. The Union's strength was further demonstrated by the merger of TANU and ASP into the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) on February 5, 1977, reflecting a unified political landscape. These significant developments occurred during events such as the war against Idi Amin of Uganda, which took place from 1978 to 1979, and the enactment of new constitutions for Tanzania in 1977 and for Zanzibar in 1984, marking a transformative period in the nation's history.

7.2. Transition and Reform.

The second phase, from 1985 to 1995, saw the leadership baton passed to President Ali Hassan Mwinyi. This period witnessed significant constitutional changes, including the introduction of a multi-party political system in 1992. In 1994, the vice presidential election process was reformed to align with the presidential election. This reform was part of a broader amendment to the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania of 1977, enacted through Act No. 34 of 1994. This amendment established a new procedure for electing the Vice President, who would now be elected in the same election as the President. Both candidates were nominated by their party simultaneously, and if the presidential candidate won, so would the Vice President.

This phase also witnessed the enactment of several key laws, including the Public Leadership Code of Ethics Act, No. 13 of 1995; the Immigration Act, No. 6 of 1995; the Tax Revenue Authority Act, No. 11 of 1995; the Bank of Tanzania Act, No. 1 of 1995; the Citizenship Act, No. 6 of 1995; and the National Security Act, No. 15 of 1995. Additionally, the establishment of the Union Matters Secretariat under the Office of the Vice President demonstrated the government's commitment to effective union governance.

7.3. Consolidating Progress.

The third phase, spanning from 1995 to 2005, marked a period of consolidation and progress under the leadership of President Benjamin William Mkapa. Building on the reforms initiated in the previous phase, President Mkapa's administration focused on legislative advancements and institutional strengthening. Despite facing challenges, including the passing of Vice President Dr. Omar Ali Juma on July 4, 2001, the government maintained its momentum. Hon. Dr. Ali Mohamed Shein was appointed to the position of Vice President of the United Republic of Tanzania.

Prime Minister Fredrick Tulway Sumaye played a crucial role in steering the government's agenda, ensuring continuity and stability. Several significant laws were enacted during this phase, including the Joint Finance Commission Act No. 14 of 1996, the Tanzania Insurance Business Act No. 18 of 1996, and the National Security Act No. 15 of 1996.

The Office of the Vice President, established under Article 47 of the 1977 Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania and Act No. 34 of 1994, Section 11, plays a crucial role in coordinating Union matters and promoting cooperation between the governments of Tanzania and Zanzibar. It also oversees environmental conservation efforts. In 2005, the Union Matters Secretariat was upgraded to a full department, showing a deep commitment to improving the efficiency of union governance.

7.4. Economic Transformation.

The fourth phase, spanning from 2005 to 2015, saw President Hon. Dr. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete spearhead a transformative development agenda in Tanzania. The government prioritized infrastructure, expanding roads, and advancing the energy sector to ensure broader access to electricity. Significant expansion in healthcare services occurred, with increased facilities and healthcare personnel. Education also progressed, with policies enhancing enrollment rates and improving education quality.

In this period, Dr. Ali Mohamed Shein served as Vice President of the United Republic of Tanzania from 2005 to 2010. His subsequent election as President of Zanzibar and Chairman of the Revolutionary Council from 2010 to 2015 continued the development momentum. Concurrently, Dr. Mohammed Gharib Bilal assumed the role of Vice President of the United Republic of Tanzania in 2010, contributing to the ongoing development efforts.

Moreover, efforts to streamline business operations were clear, simplifying procedures for starting and running businesses. The government implemented policies to enhance the business environment, making it easier for entrepreneurs to establish and grow their enterprises. Agricultural development was a key priority as well, with initiatives aimed at bolstering food production and ensuring food security. Various programs were launched to support farmers, including providing access to modern farming techniques, improving irrigation systems, and increasing access to markets. These efforts, along with the recognition and respect for President Kikwete's leadership demonstrated by awarding him the Order of Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere medal on April 24, 2024, at Chamwino State House in Dodoma, contributed to the overall economic growth and development of Tanzania during this period.

7.5. Industrialization Drive.

The Fifth Phase, from 2015 to 2021, under President John Joseph Pombe Magufuli, was marked by a strong stance against corruption, a drive to reduce government spending, and a focus on developing the country's infrastructure. His governance style, earning him the nickname "the Bulldozer," was characterized by direct action and a no-nonsense approach to tackling inefficiency and fraud. Magufuli's hands-on leadership extended to personally inspecting government offices and infrastructure projects to ensure accountability and efficiency. He also implemented measures to curb government fraud and cut wasteful spending.

During Magufuli's presidency, the slogan "Hapa Kazi Tu," meaning "Get down to work" became synonymous with a culture of productivity and efficiency. This slogan was emblematic of Magufuli's push for a diligent work ethic and his commitment to driving development in Tanzania. It encapsulated his no-nonsense approach to governance, emphasizing the need for focused and dedicated efforts to achieve progress. Throughout his presidency, the "Hapa Kazi Tu" slogan symbolized Magufuli's dedication to advancing Tanzania's development through hard work and determination.

On April 24, 2024, in a ceremony at Chamwino State House in Dodoma, President Samia Suluhu Hassan awarded the Order of Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere medal to Mama Janeth Magufuli on behalf of her late husband, President John Joseph Pombe Magufuli, who passed away on March 17, 2021. This honor is bestowed upon retired heads of state of the United Republic of Tanzania, whether they are currently living or have passed away, and who were democratically elected. This act signifies the recognition and respect for Magufuli's leadership and his contributions to Tanzania's development, as well as the ongoing tradition of honoring those who have served the nation with distinction.

7.6. Empowering Tanzania.

The Sixth Phase of the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania, initiated in 2021, has been marked by several significant achievements. The government successfully conducted the 2022 Population and Housing Census, revealing a population of 61.7 million, with 30.1 million males and 31.6 million females, distributed between Tanzania Mainland (59,851,347) and Tanzania Zanzibar (1,889,773). In addition, the Buildings Census and Physical Addresses survey identified a total of 14,348,372 buildings, with 96.9% located in Tanzania Mainland and 3.1% in Tanzania Zanzibar.

President Samia Suluhu Hassan's slogan "Kazi Iendelee" translates to "Let the work continue" in English, emphasizing ongoing progress and development in Tanzania, symbolizing her commitment to the country's growth and prosperity. Her administration has been marked by effective project execution, completion, and continuity, demonstrating her dedication to driving development initiatives forward. This slogan has garnered support for promoting a culture of productivity and advancement. President Samia has also signaled her approach to dealing with officials who fail to fulfill their duties, warning them to perform or face consequences, stating "ukinizingua, tunazinguana," which translates to "If you twist me, we twist each other." Her firm stance demonstrates her determination to ensure effective governance and progress in Tanzania.

In line with this commitment to progress, the health sector has received substantial support, including a 1.3 trillion Shillings soft loan from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to combat the effects of COVID-19. These funds have been utilized for various purposes, such as infrastructure development in the health and education sectors, and the procurement of medical equipment and medication. Progress continues with the completion of construction and renovation of referral, zonal, and regional hospitals, as well as the construction of 59 new council hospitals, renovation of 19 council hospitals, and completion of 300 dispensaries.

Efforts in the water sector has seen significant improvements, with 1,197 water supply projects completed, providing improved water services to 2,056 new villages. Additionally, more than TZS 400 billion have been invested in water projects, leading to increased water accessibility in rural and urban areas. The tourism sector has also seen advancements, while the construction sector has been particularly active, with various infrastructure projects completed or underway, including the construction of bridges, roads, government buildings, and energy projects like the Julius Nyerere Hydropower Project in Rufiji. The completion of the second phase of the Magufuli Government City in Dodoma City and the ongoing construction of the Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) and the MV Mwanza ship are among the remarkable achievements in this phase.

Additionally, the Sixth Phase has seen significant achievements through the Joint Committee of the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar to Address Union Issues. The committee has successfully resolved 11 out of 18 issues, demonstrating a commitment to collaboration and effective governance.

8. Political Evolution.

In 1961, Tanganyika gained political independence with a multi-party system in place. The Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and the African National Congress (ANC) participated in the November 1, 1962 presidential election, with 1,149,254 out of 1.8 million registered voters turning up. Julius Kambarage Nyerere of TANU won by a landslide with 98.15 percent of the vote, indicating to him that many Tanganyikans did not support the multi-party system. Consequently, President Nyerere formed a commission on January 28, 1964, to explore Tanganyika becoming a single-party state, which was chaired by Vice President Rashidi Kawawa and included 13 members. After the union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar, four additional members from Zanzibar were added, bringing the total to 17 members.

The commission submitted its report on March 22, 1965, recommending Tanzania become a single-party state. This recommendation was later approved by TANU and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP), leading to the passing of a bill and constitutional amendments in 1965. Following these changes, Tanzania officially became a single-party state, and in the subsequent general election on September 30, 1965, conducted under this new system, President Nyerere ran unopposed and received 96.46 percent of the votes, solidifying Tanzania's status as a single-party state with a voter turnout of 77.1 percent.

8.1. Transition to a Multiparty System.

On February 18, 1992, during the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) general assembly, Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, one of the architects of the United Republic of Tanzania, delivered a landmark speech advocating for multiparty politics. CCM was established on Saturday, February 5, 1977, through the fusion of TANU and ASP. The assembly followed the presentation of the Judge Nyalali Commission's report on Tanzanians' political preferences, revealing that only 20 percent favored a multiparty system, while a resounding 80 percent supported the continuation of the single-party model.

In reflection of the party's lasting influence, aligning with the minority view, Nyerere sought to reassure members that CCM need not fear opposition, as the majority still placed strong faith in the party. Drawing a powerful metaphor, he portrayed CCM not as a sinking boat but as a robust political force. This lasting influence involves building trust in the party's capabilities and unity, urging timely reforms and emphasizing CCM's role as a trusted leader with the capacity to guide the nation through significant changes.

On July 1, 1992, Tanzania's political system experienced a significant transformation, transitioning from a single-party structure, which had been in place since 1965, to a new multiparty political system. This change was formalized through the Political Parties Act of 1992, which was drafted, passed in parliament, and became the primary legal framework guiding the democratization process. Additionally, key institutions such as the Office of the Registrar of Political Parties (established in 1992) and the National Electoral Commission (established in 1993) were created to facilitate and manage this transition. The significance of this transition was demonstrated by the landmark 1995 general election, marking a pivotal moment in Tanzania's political landscape.

8.2. Diversification of Political Parties.

Since the transition in 1992, up to 2024, Tanzania saw the emergence of 19 political parties, each contributing to the country's political spectrum. These parties include well-known entities such as Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), Civic United Front (CUF), Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA), The Union for Multiparty Democracy (UMD), National Convention for Construction and Reform (NCCR MAGEUZI), National League for Democracy (NLD), United People’s Democratic Party (UPDP), National Reconstruction Alliance (NRA), Tanzania Democratic Alliance (ADA -TADEA), Tanzania Labour Party (TLP), United Democratic Party (UDP), Demokrasia Makini (MAKINI), Democratic Party (DP), Sauti ya Umma (SAU), Alliance for Tanzanian Farmers Party (AFP), Chama Cha Kijamii (CCK), Alliance for Democratic Change (ADC), Chama cha Ukombozi wa Umma (CHAUMA), and Alliance for Change and Transparency (ACT WAZALENDO).

9. Conclusion.

Commemorating six decades of unity and progress, Tanzania bears witness to the strength of its people and the vision of its leaders. From the early days of independence to the present, the United Republic of Tanzania has steered through challenges with resilience and determination, emerging as a symbol of stability and unity in Africa and beyond. As we reflect on the sixty years, we are reminded of the sacrifices made by our forebears to forge a nation where all can thrive and prosper. This journey has not been without its challenges, but through dedication and a shared commitment to progress, Tanzania has overcome obstacles and continued to grow, evolving into a nation that is not only determined but also actively anticipates and plans for the future.

Looking ahead, the vision for the future of Tanzania is one of continued progress and development. Building on the foundations laid over the years, Tanzania aims to further enhance its infrastructure, expand its economy, and improve the well-being of its people. This vision is founded in the principles of equality, inclusivity, and sustainable development, ensuring that no one is left behind as the country moves forward. Tanzania envisions a future where every citizen has access to quality education, healthcare, and economic opportunities, regardless of their background or circumstances. By investing in its people and encouraging a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship, Tanzania is committed to building a prosperous and inclusive society for generations to come.

In celebration of this proud union anniversary, we reiterate our commitment to building a united, prosperous, and inclusive Tanzania. We recognize that our strength lies in our diversity and that by working together, we can overcome any challenge that comes our way. Let us honor the legacy of those who came before us by continuing to build a nation that we can all be proud of, a nation that is truly Six Decades Strong. This anniversary serves as a reminder of our shared history and the progress we have made together. In charting our course forward, let us maintain our commitment to building a nation where every citizen has the opportunity to thrive and contribute to our collective success.

In conclusion, the United Republic of Tanzania's journey over the years has been remarkable, marked by growth, unity, and resilience. As we celebrate this milestone, let us look to the future with hope and optimism, confident in our ability to overcome whatever challenges may come our way. This anniversary is not just a time to reflect on our past achievements but also a moment to recommit ourselves to the values that have guided us thus far. It is a time to celebrate our diversity and the strength it brings to our nation, and to reaffirm our commitment to defending our country and the Union, and building a brighter future for all Tanzanians. As we begin the next phase of our journey, let us carry forward the lessons of the past and the spirit of unity that has brought us this far. May God continue to bless the United Republic of Tanzania and its people with peace, prosperity, and unity.

Hip hip hooray! Hip hip hooray! Long live the United Republic of Tanzania. Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania - Kazi Iendelee!

Thank you.

Written by Christopher Makwaia
Tel: +255 789 242 396

— The writer, is a University of West London graduate (formerly Thames Valley University) and an expert in Management, Leadership, International Business, Foreign Affairs, Global Marketing, Diplomacy, International Relations, Conflict Resolution, Negotiations, Security, Arms Control, Political Scientist, and a self-taught Computer Programmer and Web Developer.

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