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Tuesday, December 12, 2023


1. Introduction.

Political parties are indispensable architects of a nation's developmental trajectory, providing a unifying platform for diverse voices. In the legacy of its abundant cultural diversity, Tanzania stands prominently, with the influential Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) shaping the contours of its political landscape. Established on Saturday, February 5, 1977, through the fusion of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP), the birth of CCM signifies not only a political merger but a crucial moment in the nation's history. Anchored in the visionary leadership of Julius Nyerere, CCM emerges as more than a political force; it embodies the very essence of Tanzania's struggle for independence and subsequent evolution.

As a stalwart guardian of socialist principles, CCM has not only weathered the winds of change but has navigated them with a remarkable finesse that surpasses political eras. From its origins in a single-party dominance epoch to its adaptability within a multi-party framework, CCM has consistently demonstrated resilience. Beyond political prowess, it has advocated for ideals of social justice and economic equity, shaping the contours of Tanzanian governance. Join with me as we unveil Chama Cha Mapinduzi, unraveling the historical complexities, ideological foundation, and lasting impact that position it as a significant element in Tanzania's political saga.

2. Historical Evolution.

The genesis of the Tanganyika African Association (TAA) in 1948, sparked by the division of the African Association (AA) in Tanganyika and Zanzibar, marked a crucial moment in the quest for African rights, interests, and unity. Established in 1927 in Dar es Salaam under the leadership of Cecil Matola and Kleist Sykes, the AA became an advocate for promoting non-political objectives. By 1953, with Julius Kambarage Nyerere assuming leadership, a realization dawned that aligning TAA with political goals necessitated a new constitution. 

The realization of that effort not only birthed a transformed TAA but also heralded the emergence of TANU on July 7, 1954, seamlessly inheriting the legacy, branches, and leadership of TAA. Simultaneously, the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) materialized as a political entity from the aspirations of the African Association (AA) in Zanzibar (1933) and the Shirazi Association (SA) (1938), both addressing political and labor interests. The fusion of AA and SA at the Joint Conference on February 5, 1957, led to the formation of ASP, with Sheikh Abeid Amani Karume as President and Sheikh Thabit Kombo as Secretary-General. 

On April 26, 1964, the historical narrative reached its highest point with the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, giving rise to the United Republic of Tanzania. Within a single-party framework, TANU and ASP coexisted, highlighting the necessity for a robust leadership structure. Responding to this recognition, a significant development unfolded on January 21, 1977, during the Joint National Conference of TANU and ASP in Dar es Salaam, chaired by Julius Nyerere and Aboud Jumbe. Delegates, representing both parties, unified to dissolve Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and Afro Shiraz Party (ASP) with effect from February 5, 1977. At the same time, they inaugurated Chama Cha Mapinduzi, a singular political entity for the entirety of Tanzania endowed with supreme authority in strict adherence to the Constitution, emphasizing the commitment to effective governance and liberation in the unified nation.

This dissolution, conducted with dignified solemnity, symbolized the consummation of the historic missions of TANU and ASP, unprecedented successes in the political texture of Africa. The resolution reverently acknowledged the invaluable contributions of the founding fathers of TANU and ASP, recognizing them as central figures in the national liberation not only of Tanzania but also the broader African continent. The establishment of a new Party was conceived as a continuation of the socialist revolution in Tanzania and a consistent allegiance to the liberation struggle in Africa. 
The delegates pledged to construct an organization of strength, dedicated ideology, and revolutionary action, aiming to eradicate all forms of exploitation and safeguard the authentic interests of the workers and peasants. The vision extends to fostering a connection between Tanzanian revolutionaries and their counterparts worldwide, charting a path forward in the pursuit of justice, equality, and genuine liberation.

3. CCM Internal Structure.

The organizational framework of Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM) is characterized by a robust three-tiered leadership structure, with the Chairman assuming a paramount role as the primary leader. Collaborating closely with the Chairman are two Vice-Chairpersons, strategically positioned in Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar, respectively. The Secretary-General, carefully selected by the Central Committee, functions as the chief executive, orchestrating essential administrative operations under the guiding framework of the Central Committee.
 Augmenting the Secretary-General's responsibilities are two Deputy Secretaries-General, meticulously chosen to represent Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar, offering additional support to the central leadership. Moreover, a Council of Advisory of Retired Leaders, composed of esteemed retired Presidents and Vice-Chairpersons, convenes as necessary to furnish invaluable guidance to CCM and the government led by CCM on matters of particular significance.

The sophisticated machinery of Chama Cha Mapinduzi's internal structure is reflected in its well-defined National party components. At the apex is the National Congress, the highest decision-making body. Directly beneath, the National Executive Committee (NEC) holds a crucial role in formulating and implementing the party's agenda. Further, the Central Committee of the NEC collaborates closely in overseeing the party's daily affairs and central decision-making processes. 
Notably, the Special Committee of the NEC, specifically for Zanzibar. The organizational hierarchy extends to the Secretariats of both the NEC and the Special Committee, ensuring efficient coordination and execution of party initiatives. Additionally, the CCM Parliamentary Caucus and the House of Representatives Caucus contribute to the party's comprehensive governance structure, linking internal decision-making with parliamentary representation.

CCM places a strong emphasis on party discipline to maintain internal cohesion. The party has a clearly defined code of conduct that outlines the expected behavior of its members, emphasizing loyalty to party principles and adherence to ethical standards. The disciplinary process is overseen by internal committees, including national organs, regional organs, district organs, Constituency organs, ward organs, Branch organs, and cell organs, tasked with ensuring that members comply with party regulations at various levels. This commitment to discipline is seen as essential for preserving party unity and preventing internal dissent. Moreover, the party regularly engages in political education programs to instill its ideology and values among members, fostering a sense of common purpose and commitment to the party's objectives.

3.1. The National Congress.

The National Congress of Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) holds a versatile role, overseeing policy formulation, reviewing reports from the National Executive Committee, and providing directives for future plans. It possesses authority to confirm, modify, or revoke decisions made by lower organs or party leaders. The Congress, with a two-thirds majority, can amend sections of the CCM Constitution. 
During elections, it elects key party figures, such as the Chairperson and Vice-Chairpersons, selects a presidential candidate for Tanzania, and elects National Executive Committee members. The Congress also forms committees, delegates powers to the National Executive Committee, and stands as the paramount organ, wielding definitive authority over all Party affairs.

3.2. The National Executive Committee.

The National Executive Committee (NEC) holds a fundamental role in the party, offering overarching political leadership, formulating policies, and promoting Socialism and Self-reliance ideology. It oversees the implementation of these principles, prepares election manifestos, and monitors members' behavior. Key responsibilities include strategic planning for elections, appointing regional secretaries, and selecting the Zanzibar Presidency candidate. 
NEC actively engages in the electoral process, managing nominations and crucial decision-making. With authority over membership matters, expulsion, and restoration, the committee also handles party structure adjustments and civic organization relations. Notably, NEC decisions, especially constitutional amendments, necessitate a two-thirds majority and National Congress approval, emphasizing their significance in shaping party direction.

3.3. The Central Committee.

The Central Committee of the National Executive Committee shoulders a multitude of essential responsibilities, these include furnishing essential political leadership, meticulously overseeing the day-to-day activities of the CCM, and actively propagating the party's ideology and policies nationwide. Furthermore, the committee assumes a central role in election-related functions, such as recommending candidates for various positions and scrutinizing campaigns.
 It holds the authority to appoint key officials within the party structure and, notably during elections, to suspend leaders demonstrating behavior inconsistent with leadership qualifications, excluding the CCM Chairperson and Vice Chairpersons. In addition to ensuring national defense and security, the committee plays a crucial role in national development arrangements, prepares for National Executive Committee meetings, and exercises stringent control over the party's financial landscape, including income generation plans, revenue oversight, and approval of expenditures at the national level.

3.4. The Secretariat.

The Secretariat of the National Executive Committee holds a vital position within CCM, led by the Secretary General as the Chairperson and comprised of key members. This essential body includes Deputy Secretaries General and Secretaries responsible for specific areas such as Organization, Ideology and Publicity, Political Affairs and International Relations, and Economic Affairs and Finance. 

The Secretariat oversees nationwide CCM operations and prepares for national-level meetings, with distinct offices led by Secretaries for operational efficiency. These offices, organized into departments, play crucial roles, the Department of Organization, for instance, handles CCM member affairs, oversees mass organizations, and supervises electoral matters. Simultaneously, the Department of Ideology and Publicity grapples with core concerns surrounding CCM's ideology, disseminating and elaborating on its key tenets, and maintaining a watchful eye over media institutions. 
Meanwhile, the Department of Political Affairs and International Relations emerges as a vigilant guardian, monitoring political developments, ensuring the faithful implementation of the Election Manifesto, and fostering connections with political entities both at home and abroad. 
Lastly, the Department of Economic Affairs and Finance assumes a role of economic stewardship, overseeing policy implementation, coordinating and controlling party revenue at all levels, managing economic ventures, and maintaining vigilance over party properties.

4. The Pulse of CCM's Mass Organizations.

The political landscape of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) in Tanzania is closely linked with the vibrant structure of its affiliated Mass Organisations, each playing a fundamental role in shaping the party's vision and fostering societal engagement. The CCM Youth League (UVCCM) stands as a dynamic force, a crucible of youthful energy and enthusiasm, propelling the party's ideals forward into the future. Meanwhile, the Women Organization of Tanzania (UWT) serves as a powerful advocate for gender equality and women's empowerment, amplifying the voices of Tanzanian women within the political realm. 
Adding a familial touch to the political framework, the Parents Association (WAZAZI) brings forth a collective wisdom, bridging generations and contributing a nurturing perspective to the CCM's overarching goals. Together, these Mass Organisations not only reflect the diversity of Tanzania's population but also serve as conduits through which the CCM engages with and addresses the varied aspirations of its citizens.

5. Ideology and Principles.

Initiating its trajectory on a transformative journey, Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) sets forth a compelling vision for the future. With a defined mission and role in the governance of the nation, the party is guided by a set of robust objectives and purposes that emphasize its commitment to shaping a democratic socialist future characterized by a sense of global unity and collaboration. Central to its mission is the commitment to democratic and socialist principles, as outlined in the Arusha Declaration. One primary focus is the attainment of electoral victories at both the central and local government levels in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar. 
The party emphasizes safeguarding the independence of the nation and its citizens, ensuring the protection of life and property under the law. CCM is dedicated to fostering a society built on socialism and self-reliance, in alignment with the foundational ideologies of TANU and ASP, as articulated in historical party writings.

The party places a strong emphasis on the welfare and rights of citizens, promoting engagement in meaningful work and guaranteeing fair compensation. Furthermore, CCM is committed to democratic governance, encouraging active citizen participation in decision-making through established forums. 
The principles of equality and non-discrimination are core to the party's values, ensuring that all citizens, regardless of race, tribe, religion, or individual status, have equal opportunities. CCM strives to eliminate oppression, threats, discrimination, corruption, injustice, and favoritism within the country, emphasizing a democratic and socialist governance framework.

Chama Cha Mapinduzi's beliefs further highlight its commitment to universal human rights and the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The party's dedication to revolutionary spirit and collaboration with like-minded parties globally demonstrates a commitment to fighting against neo-colonialism, imperialism, and discrimination. In addition to its objectives, the party's beliefs emphasize the fundamental principles of human equality, deserving respect for each individual's humanity. 
CCM firmly advocates for socialism and self-reliance as the essential paths to creating a society characterized by equality and freedom for all citizens. CCM's objectives collectively fortify its commitment to citizens' well-being, development, and equal opportunities, aligning with the broader ideals of democratic socialism. Inherent in these objectives are the party's moral and ideological principles, shaping policies and actions that emphasize a dedication to fostering a society marked by justice and equity.

6. Political Influence and Electoral Success.

Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) stands out in Tanzanian politics as an influential and consistently successful political force, with a legacy deeply rooted in the nation's journey to independence. This historical connection fosters a sense of continuity and trust among Tanzanians. The party's ability to navigate changing political landscapes while upholding core principles contributes to its sustained appeal.
 Grounded in visionary ideals like those of Julius Nyerere, CCM emphasizes unity, striking a chord with the country's diverse population and forging a collective national identity. The party's strength is further augmented by its grassroots organization and effective communication strategies, establishing a robust connection with citizens at the local level.

CCM's commitment to socio-economic development and stability positions it as a symbol of continuity, stability, and progress in Tanzanian politics, with a dominance that spans decades. This unique combination enhances its political influence and contributes to its electoral triumphs. Beyond national borders, CCM's influence extends globally, solidifying its status as a key player in Africa and international politics. Established in a firm embrace of socialist ideals, self-reliance, and national unity, the party meticulously crafts policies and election manifestos in alignment with its founding principles, consistently attracting voters, securing victories in elections, and cementing CCM as the guiding force shaping Tanzania's present and future.

CCM's success in elections reflects the consistent trust of Tanzanian citizens and signifies its alignment with a broad spectrum of the population. This success, seen in both National Assembly and presidential victories, highlights the party's understanding of and responsiveness to the people's aspirations. Under CCM's leadership, Tanzania has witnessed significant socio-economic development, with proactive initiatives addressing issues such as poverty, infrastructure, and social welfare. 
The commitment to inclusive leadership has played a crucial role in fostering national unity, mitigating polarization associated with multi-party systems. Such emphasis on collective leadership contributes to the overall stability of Tanzania, creating an environment conducive to sustained development and attracting investments. CCM's positive political influence, grounded in democratic principles and inclusive governance, serves as a driving force for the nation's prosperity.

As the incumbent ruling party, CCM has demonstrated its effective oversight by closely monitoring and supervising the government's implementation of the party's manifesto. This outstanding leadership is evident through the dedication of key party figures, prominently the National Chairman, along with other essential leaders, collectively reflecting a spirit of commitment and excellence. Their meticulous attention ensures that the promises made to citizens are not merely rhetoric but are diligently translated into tangible actions. The commitment is further manifested through CCM MPs who actively advocate for the interests of Tanzanians in parliament, effectively managing the government's performance to ensure productivity and benefits for the entire Tanzanian nation. The holistic approach accentuates CCM's dedication to accountable governance and the well-being of Tanzanians.

7. Achievements in Leadership.

The accomplishments of Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM) form a compelling narrative of national progress. CCM has not only safeguarded and strengthened unity, solidarity, peace, stability, security, and independence but has also upheld the Glorious Revolution of Zanzibar and the Union of Tanzania. Firmly dedicated to multi-party democracy, human rights, and the secularity of the state, Under the leadership of the Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM) government, Tanzania has positioned itself as a non-aligned state, steadfastly defending national interests with unflinching principles. 
The public service under CCM flourishes with professionalism, discipline, integrity, diligence, and skills, bolstered by robust policy frameworks that intensify the fight against corruption, economic sabotage, and illicit activities, channeling resources towards national development. 

CCM's initiatives have resulted in improved food security, surplus production for foreign markets, a robust industrial economy, and strategic projects such as the Julius Nyerere Hydropower Project and Standard Gauge Railway, all contributing to economic and social prosperity. With a focus on mineral control, increased government revenue, environmental protection, and proactive measures against climate change, CCM demonstrates a commitment to sustainable development. The comprehensive approach has led to the creation of modern infrastructure, rapid economic growth, and an improved social welfare system, representing significant strides in the nation's development under the guidance of Chama cha Mapinduzi.

Tanzania, covering both the mainland and Zanzibar, has experienced substantial economic and social progress. Notably, on the mainland, per capita income increased from TZS 1,968,965 in 2015 to TZS 2,458,496 in 2018, accompanied by an outstanding annual GDP growth of 6.7 percent. Life expectancy also rose commendably from 61 to 65 years between 2015 and 2020. The surge in electricity production has addressed rural deficits and eliminated load shedding. The introduction of free education led to increased student enrollment, with 2,185,037 secondary school students and 87,813 university enrollees in 2019. Access to clean water has significantly improved, with rates of 70.1 percent in rural areas and 85 percent in urban areas as of 2020. Healthcare facilities expanded, ensuring a 94.5 percent availability of essential medicines. Notably, the poverty rate decreased to 26.4 percent, and 84.1 percent of households now enjoy improved housing conditions with modern roofs.

Similarly, in Zanzibar, under CCM's stewardship, Zanzibar has witnessed impressive progress. The average per capita income surged from TZS 1,666,000 in 2015 to an impressive TZS 2,549,000 in 2019, complemented by robust GDP growth of 6.8 percent. 
Additionally, life expectancy reached 68.4 years in 2020, highlighting significant advancements. Notably, this progress extends comprehensively to electricity services, education, clean water access, healthcare, and various other vital areas across the country. Zanzibar's commitment to enhancing healthcare access, symbolized by free medical care and a substantial increase in the budget for essential medicines, reflects the collective efforts toward elevating the quality of life for its people, all under the leadership of Chama cha Mapinduzi.

8. CCM's Integral Role in Tanzania's Future.

In 1990, in Dodoma, Mwalimu J.K. Nyerere remarked, "Though I've stepped down, my lasting belief remains, without a strong CCM, the nation will falter." These profound words capture the timeless wisdom of Nyerere, a visionary leader whose insights into the critical role of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) in Tanzania's destiny have proven remarkably prescient.

As we traverse the pages of time from Nyerere's statement to the present, the resilience of the CCM stands out as a bedrock for Tanzania's stability and progress. Beyond weathering the storms of political change, the CCM has evolved into a dynamic force, adapting to contemporary challenges while staying rooted in its principles of unity, self-reliance, and social justice. Nyerere's vision has manifested in the party's ability not only to survive but to thrive in the face of evolving political, economic, and social landscapes.

As Tanzania looks to the future, the role of the CCM becomes increasingly crucial. The party's commitment to inclusive development, coupled with strategic initiatives in infrastructure, education, healthcare, economy, and other vital areas, positions it as a driving force for positive change and comprehensive progress in the nation. 
However, the CCM's journey into the future also demands adaptability. Navigating global complexities, technological shifts, and demographic changes requires the party to innovate and embrace progressive policies. The lasting strength of the CCM, as envisioned by Nyerere, lies in its capacity to evolve without compromising its foundational values. In this era of profound change, the party's ability to balance tradition and innovation will determine its effectiveness in shaping Tanzania's trajectory toward sustained economic growth, social well-being, and global relevance. Nyerere's words serve as an eternal reminder that a tenacious CCM remains not only a political entity but crucial for Tanzania's ongoing success.

9. A Legacy of Progress.

Elevated as a symbol of liberation across Africa, Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) draws profound significance from its genesis. Crafted under the leadership of visionaries, CCM emerges as a unifying force, skillfully interconnecting the historical elements of Tanzania's political storyline and contributing to the broader narrative of African liberation. While not physically present during the significant moments of Tanganyika's 1961 independence or Zanzibar's 1964 Revolution, CCM seamlessly inherits and advances the mantle of liberation from its precursor parties. The harmonious collaboration between TANU and ASP within the framework of CCM solidifies its historical impact as a transformative entity, embodying the collective journey towards independence and the fostering of a unified national and continental identity.

Distinguishing itself from its counterparts in Tanzania and across Africa, CCM has garnered distinction for upholding a robust internal democracy and implementing effective conflict resolution systems, fortifying its resilience in the face of challenges. Since the era of Nyerere, CCM has exemplified a commitment to democratic principles, including a dedication to term limits, and dynamic internal party leadership rotation, mirroring the seamless succession of presidents on the national stage. 
The internal party leadership rotation, coupled with a commitment to democratic values, distinguishes CCM from many political parties that grapple with democratic deficits, extended leadership tenures, and internal conflict resolution challenges. As a seasoned and influential political force, CCM's capacity to adapt not only shapes the political landscape within Tanzania but also leaves a lasting impact on the global stage. 

Julius Nyerere, serving as both the President of Tanzania and the Chairman of CCM, earned widespread national and international admiration by voluntarily stepping down from the presidency in 1985 and later relinquishing the chairmanship of CCM in 1990, during the peak of his influence. His active involvement in selecting his successor set him apart from many African leaders who often clung to power. This act not only highlighted Nyerere's statesmanship but also reflected positively on the CCM party, demonstrating a remarkable level of political maturity. The party's embrace of Nyerere's decisions demonstrated a commitment to preserving internal democracy while navigating the involved process of identifying a successor for Mwalimu Julius Nyerere. Such crucial turning point not only solidified Nyerere's legacy as an exemplary leader but also highlighted CCM's dedication to principled governance, illustrating its ability to navigate transitions gracefully and uphold democratic values.
The legacy of CCM is closely bound with a significant moment on February 18, 1992, during the CCM general assembly, where Nyerere, the founding father of the nation, delivered a landmark speech advocating for multiparty politics. This momentous occasion followed the presentation of the Judge Nyalali Commission's report on Tanzanians' political preferences, revealing that only 20 percent favored a multiparty system, while a resounding 80 percent supported the continuation of the single-party model. In a testament to the party's lasting influence, aligning with the minority view, Nyerere sought to reassure members that CCM need not fear opposition, as the majority still placed unflinching faith in the party. Drawing a powerful metaphor, he portrayed CCM not as a sinking boat but as a robust political force. This lasting influence encompasses fostering trust in the party's capabilities and unity, urging timely reforms and emphasizing CCM's role as a trusted leader with the capacity to guide the nation through significant changes.

10. Conclusion.

Since its inception in 1977, Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) has been instrumental in shaping Tanzania's political trajectory, profoundly impacting stability, socio-economic development, and the pursuit of a prosperous future. Rooted in socialist and self-reliant principles, CCM's leadership goes beyond governance, actively molding the nation's political landscape. Under CCM's guidance, Tanzania transitioned to a robust multiparty system, defining its democratic identity. 
The party's commitment to democratic, secular, and socialist ideals, as enshrined in Section 1, Article 3 of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania, fosters national cohesion and purpose. Such dedication cements Tanzania's image as a stable, inclusive African political entity. Guided by its philosophy, CCM not only ensures sustained progress but empowers citizens to actively participate in shaping the nation's future through democratic processes, fostering collective advancement.

Under CCM's continued leadership, the party has not only spearheaded significant political reforms but has also achieved tangible progress in various sectors, notably healthcare, education, infrastructure, and other areas. The party's emphasis on grassroots development has translated into improved healthcare accessibility, contributing to enhanced public health. Educational opportunities have expanded, complemented by robust infrastructure development, resulting in an empowered citizenry and an overall improved quality of life. Beyond these, CCM's commitment to poverty alleviation has seen successful programs and policies lifting many Tanzanians out of poverty, while steady economic growth has attracted foreign investments, positioning Tanzania as a regional economic powerhouse. The party's forward-looking vision, dedication to sustainable development, and strategic economic policies have fostered job creation and elevated living standards, establishing a solid foundation for the nation's continued progress across diverse areas.

In defying skepticism surrounding its persistent strength, CCM emerges as a formidable force within the nation and on the global stage. Firmly grounded in a rich history and cognizant of both past triumphs and present challenges, CCM exhibits a determined commitment to overcoming obstacles. The party is poised to navigate these challenges with a clear vision, not only for its future but also for the prosperity of Tanzania and its diverse citizens. Emphatically transcending considerations of color, tribe, religion, and political differences, CCM distinguishes itself as a mature and exemplary political entity, prioritizing unity and inclusivity. 
Its capacity to adapt to internal changes, along with party discipline and a clearly defined code of conduct, while upholding democratic principles and emphasizing loyalty to party ideals and adherence to ethical standards, highlights its resilience and leadership prowess in a dynamically evolving political landscape, demonstrating maturity and the ability to rise above divisive factors, making it a model for political parties worldwide.

A careful examination of the current political landscape brings to light the conspicuous absence of a compelling alternative to CCM. The party's profound connection with the populace, embodied in its principles of unity and progress, has engendered a distinctive political synergy. In stark contrast, opposition parties grapple with the formidable challenge of presenting a comprehensive and impactful vision for Tanzania's future, facing a significant lack of collective strength. 
Given this context, it is reasonable to anticipate that CCM will persist as the foremost choice for Tanzanians. The party uniquely amalgamates historical achievements and effective policy implementation, ensuring its continued role as the heartbeat for Tanzania's relentless journey toward progress and lasting prosperity. With these dynamics in play, it can be predicted that CCM will likely remain the singular choice for Tanzanians, forming the government and guiding the nation for decades to come, cementing its profound impact on the country's trajectory.

Thank you.

Written by Christopher Makwaia
Tel: +255 789 242 396

- The writer, is a University of West London graduate (formerly Thames Valley University) and an expert in Management, Leadership, International Business, Foreign Affairs, Global Marketing, Diplomacy, International Relations, Conflict Resolution, Negotiations, Security, Arms Control, Political Scientist, and a self-taught Computer Programmer and Web Developer.

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